Tag Archive for: USA Hague Convention

Hague Convention Hazards During The Holidays

The holiday season is a time when families gather to celebrate and forge cherished memories. However, this festive period can be an emotionally charged time for separated parents, especially for families entangled in international custody disputes.

In such situations, the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction becomes a critical legal framework to address the intricate challenges that arise during this time of year.

In this blog, we will explore the potential hazards associated with the Hague Convention during the holidays and discuss how a Hague Attorney can guide you in navigating these complex laws. Here’s what you need to know.

Understanding The Hague Convention

The Hague Convention on Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (“The Hague Convention”) was enacted into law through the International Child Abduction Remedies Act (“ICARA”), which provides that a parent whose child has been wrongfully removed from or retained in the United States may petition for the child’s return to his or her country of habitual residence.

It’s important to note that the Hague Convention does not address custody or visitation rights issues but instead focuses on the prompt return of the child to their country of habitual residence. Preparing for challenges is essential, as international custody disputes can be emotionally demanding. Let’s look at some of the key hazards to watch out for this holiday season.

1. Travel Restrictions

One of the key hazards of the Hague Convention during the holidays is the potential for travel restrictions. If a parent believes that their child has been wrongfully removed or retained in violation of the Convention, they may initiate legal proceedings in the child’s country of habitual residence. This can lead to court orders restricting the child’s ability to travel during the holiday season, which can be especially distressing for both the child and the parent seeking their return.

Implementing travel restrictions can be logistically complex. It may require coordination between legal authorities, immigration agencies, and airlines, further complicating the situation. It is crucial for all parties involved to work closely with Hague Lawyer, who is well-versed in international child abduction cases. These professionals can help navigate the legal process efficiently and advocate for the child’s best interests.

2. Parental Responsibility Disputes

The holiday season is meant to be a time of joy and celebration. Still, for families facing child custody disputes, it can often evolve into a period of heightened tension and conflict. Custody battles are emotionally taxing under any circumstances. Still, when international elements come into play, their complexities can escalate, necessitating legal intervention to achieve a resolution that genuinely serves the children’s best interests. Taking proactive steps to protect their well-being becomes paramount. Your Hague attorney may recommend several preventive measures, including:

  1. Obtaining a clear parenting plan that outlines each parent’s rights and responsibilities, including any necessary travel restrictions.
  2. Adding your child’s name to a watchlist to prevent unauthorized removal from the country.
  3. Securing a court order may involve temporarily surrendering your child’s passport or imposing specific restrictions on international travel.
  4. Collaborating with your child’s school to establish enhanced security measures and emergency protocols.

By implementing these proactive measures, you can better navigate the complexities of international child custody disputes, protecting your child’s interests and well-being during a time of joy and togetherness.

3. Timing Constrictions

Different countries have varying interpretations and parents for applying The Hague Convention. Hague Convention cases are time-consuming, and delays can significantly impact the outcome. The holiday season can lead to court closures, reduced availability, and scheduling conflicts. All of which can impede the timely resolution of the case.

Parental child abductions can escalate rapidly, especially during the holidays when parents may attempt to seize their children for extended periods. This urgency requires swift and informed legal action. Navigating these legal complexities can be overwhelming without the guidance of a family law attorney.

4. Language Barriers

Language barriers can pose a significant challenge in cases involving the Hague Convention. Parents from different countries may not share a common language in custody disputes. This can hinder effective communication and understanding between the parties involved, including parents, legal professionals, and the child.

To mitigate this hazard, it’s essential to work with legal professionals experienced in international child abduction cases and have access to translation services when necessary. Additionally, parties involved should try to find common ground and help ensure effective communication to reach a resolution that prioritizes the child’s best interests.

How a Child Abduction Lawyer Can Help

Working with a Hague attorney increases the likelihood of resolving your dispute efficiently and effectively. Hague attorneys can help guide you through the complex legal processes and advocate for your rights. One of the main advantages of working with a Hague attorney is their experience in mediation and negotiation. These methods aim to resolve custody disputes outside of court by facilitating constructive dialogue and finding mutually agreeable solutions.

At Masters Law Group, we have extensive knowledge in handling cases involving international child abduction and custody disputes. Our Hague attorneys understand the importance of finding a resolution that aligns with your goals. We prioritize open communication with our clients and strive to provide personalized attention to address your concerns and help ensure you are well-informed throughout the legal process. 

Here are a few recent Hague decisions we have successfully managed:

Final thoughts

Dealing with Hague Convention-related issues during the holidays can be daunting, but you don’t have to face it alone. Seeking the assistance of a knowledgeable Hague attorney can make all the difference in navigating international child abduction cases.

Erin Masters and Anthony Joseph have extensive experience in successfully handling cases involving international child custody disputes, representing clients in the United States federal court system. If you or someone you know is facing international parental child abduction, reach out to us today.

Contact us today to schedule your complimentary consultation.

Who Does the Hague Convention Apply To?

If you believe you might be facing the terrifying situation of International Child Abduction, you will need to determine whether the Hague Convention treaty is “in force” between the U.S. and the other country involved. 

In a nutshell, the Hague Abduction Convention is an international agreement to safeguard intercountry adoptions. An application may be made when a child is taken or retained across an international border, away from his or her habitual residence, without the consent of a parent who has rights of custody under the law of the habitual residence, if the two countries are parties to the Convention. The child must be promptly returned to the habitual residence unless the return will create a grave risk of harm to the child or another limited exception is established.

The Convention has the child’s best interest, and provides a shared civil remedy among partner countries. Depending on where your child was taken determines whether the Convention is “in force” between nations. It is therefore important to determine whether the Convention is in force with the particular country in question and when the Convention went into force between the U.S. and the other country.


The Hague Convention is essentially a treaty that many countries, along with the US have joined. On May 29, 1993, the Convention established international standards of practices for intercountry adoptions. The United States signed the Convention in 1994, and the Convention entered into force for the United States on April 1, 2008. 

How do you determine whether the treaty is “in force” between the U.S. and the other country involved? The Federal Judicial Center explains with the following:

‘The issue of whether the Convention is “in force” between states can be complex. There are differences in the processes by which a state can be bound by the treaty, specifically between those who are “member states” and those who become “party states.” 

Member states are states that were members of The Hague Conference on Private International Law at the time of adoption of the Child Abduction Convention at the 14th Session in 1980.

The differences between the two is the following:

  • Actions by member states include ratifications, approvals, or acceptances.
  • Party states are all other countries that agree to be bound by the Convention and “accede” to the Convention.

For member states, the ratification by one member state causes the convention to automatically come into force between that ratifying member state and all other previously ratifying member states. However, when a member state ratifies the Convention, the Convention does not automatically enter into force between that state and a party state that has acceded to the convention.

The treaty “enters into force” between two countries when they are both bound by the Convention. In order for the Convention to enter into force between a member state and a party state, the member state must expressly accept the accession by the party state. 

The same applies to the accession of one party state vis-á-vis another acceding party state; that is, the accession must be specifically accepted by the previously acceding party state.’

101 states are a party to the convention. Like extradition treaties, some countries that have signed a Hague Convention treaty with the United States are noncompliant or refuse to hold up the terms of the treaty.


Below are the countries that participate in the Hague Convention and are “in force” with the United States of America. You can find the official list with dates and more here.

country pop2022 hagueConventionEntryDate
Andorra 77.463 1/1/2017
Argentina 46010.234 6/1/1991
Armenia 2971.966 3/1/2018
Australia 26068.792 7/1/1988
Austria 9066.71 10/1/1988
Bahamas 400.516 1/1/1994
Belgium 11668.278 5/1/1999
Belize 412.19 11/1/1989
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3249.317 12/1/1991
Brazil 215353.593 12/1/2003
Bulgaria 6844.597 2005/01//01
Burkina Faso 22102.838 11/1/1992
Canada 38388.419 7/1/1988
Chile 19250.195 7/1/1994
Colombia 51512.762 6/1/1996
Costa Rica 5182.354 1/1/2008
Croatia 4059.286 12/1/1991
Cyprus 1223.387 3/1/1995
Czech Republic 10736.784 3/1/1998
Denmark 5834.95 7/1/1991
Dominican Republic 11056.37 6/1/2007
Ecuador 18113.361 4/1/1992
El Salvador 6550.389 6/1/2007
Estonia 1321.91 5/1/2007
Fiji 909.466 5/1/2017
Finland 5554.96 8/1/1994
France 65584.518 7/1/1988
Germany 83883.596 12/1/1990
Greece 10316.637 6/1/1993
Guatemala 18584.039 1/1/2008
Honduras 10221.247 6/1/1994
Hong Kong 7604.299 9/1/1997
Hungary 9606.259 7/1/1988
Iceland 345.393 12/1/1996
Ireland 5020.199 10/1/1991
Israel 8922.892 12/1/1991
Italy 60262.77 5/1/1995
Jamaica 2985.094 4/1/2019
Japan 125584.838 4/1/2014
Latvia 1848.837 5/1/2007
Lithuania 2661.708 5/1/2007
Luxembourg 642.371 7/1/1988
Macau 667.49 3/1/1999
Malta 444.033 2/1/2003
Mauritius 1274.727 10/1/1993
Mexico 131562.772 10/1/1991
Monaco 39.783 6/1/1993
Montenegro 627.95 12/1/1991
Morocco 37772.756 12/1/2012
Netherlands 17211.447 9/1/1990
New Zealand 4898.203 10/1/1991
Norway 5511.37 4/1/1989
Panama 4446.964 6/1/1994
Paraguay 7305.843 1/1/2008
Peru 33684.208 6/1/2007
Poland 37739.785 11/1/1992
Portugal 10140.57 7/1/1988
Romania 19031.335 6/1/1993
Saint Kitts and Nevis 53.871 6/1/1995
San Marino 34.085 1/1/2008
Serbia 8653.016 12/1/1991
Singapore 5943.546 5/1/2012
Slovakia 5460.193 2/1/2001
Slovenia 2078.034 4/1/1995
South Africa 60756.135 11/1/1997
South Korea 51329.899 11/1/2013
Spain 46719.142 7/1/1988
Sri Lanka 21575.842 1/1/2008
Sweden 10218.971 6/1/1989
Switzerland 8773.637 7/1/1988
Thailand 70078.203 4/1/2016
Trinidad and Tobago 1406.585 8/1/2013
Turkey 85561.976 8/1/2000
Ukraine 43192.122 9/1/2007
United Kingdom 68497.907 7/1/1988
Uruguay 3496.016 9/1/2004
Venezuela 29266.991 1/1/1997
Zimbabwe 15331.428 8/1/1995

Export the list here. 


Most of the world, including the United States, belongs to the Hague Convention, and they will negotiate treaties to help streamline international justice. When family law disputes cross international boundaries, it is essential to have the help from a knowledgeable family law attorney who understands all of the laws that go along with child custody cases.

Our attorneys, Erin Masters and Anthony Joseph, have extensive knowledge and experience with The Hague Convention on Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (“The Hague Convention”) that was enacted into law through the International Child Abduction Remedies Act (“ICARA”) which provides that a parent whose child has been wrongfully removed from or retained in the United States may petition for the child’s return to his or her country of habitual residence. 

Browse Our Featured Hague Decisions:

Contact us here today to set up a complimentary consultation.


Top 5 Family Law Issues Over the Holidays

The holidays are often spent with family. For some people, this is an exciting time of the year. For others, it is a source of stress. For divorced couples, how do you share custody during the holidays? Can you change a custody agreement in Illinois? What about grandparent visitation rights? Read on to learn more about the most common family law issues during the holidays and some potential solutions.

The holidays can be a difficult time for a lot of people. Some grapple with the loss of a loved one over holidays. Some couples put off their divorces until after the holiday season. Some people struggle to spend a lot of time with their families.

While the holidays can be a wonderful time, they can also come with a lot of tension. If you are struggling during the holiday season, you are not alone. Here are the top 5 family law issues that occur during the holidays.

  1. Couples Putting off Divorce

Going through a divorce can be a stressful experience in someone’s life. Unfortunately, it’s common for couples who wish to get a divorce to hold off until after the holidays. They tend to do so for the sake of the kids and other family members, but it can be hard to keep a brave face with an impending divorce looming as soon as the holiday magic is gone. It is important to know that this is something many couples struggle with.

  1. Rushed Proposals

Proposals are a common occurrence during the holiday season. In fact, Christmas Day is the most popular day to propose. Because of the excitement of the holidays, many people rush into proposals without considering all the legal issues to take into account. For example, do you know if you want your partner to sign a prenuptial agreement?

Legally, an engagement ring is considered a “conditional gift” based on the marriage taking place and the ring goes back to the purchaser if the engagement is broken, regardless of who ends it. But rings given on Christmas, Valentine’s Day or birthdays are typically classified as more traditional gifts, and the majority of courts have allowed the receiver to keep them. 

  1. Making a Holiday Parenting Plan/Schedule

When it comes down to it, the most difficult aspect of child custody during the holidays is figuring out who will be where and when. The next hardest component is making that schedule happen. Be realistic with the holiday itinerary and consider input from the children, if possible. Be proactive and create a Holiday Parenting Plan. Here are some considerations:

  1. Identify the specific holidays that are important to you and your family.
  2. Be specific about the times that define the holiday.
  3. Consider whether or not the holiday may or will involve travel. It is important to build this into your holiday plan even if you do not plan to travel every year.
  4. Consider whether or not the holiday can be incorporated into the regular parenting time plan.
  5. Consider whether or not it is possible to have the holiday included. For example, some holidays are during the school day (Halloween) and if you decide you want to split the holiday, how will that happen once the children are in school? Dividing this time means that one parent is transporting the children during prime trick or treating time. Is this really what you want for your children?

4. Changes to custody agreements

Often, divorced couples with children wish to change their custody agreements as the holidays roll around. When seeking a modification, a motion to modify custody must be filed. The motion must be filed in the county where the original custody order was signed. If the child no longer lives in that county, it may be possible to have the case transferred. This can be difficult to do at the last minute, so you should contact our firm to discuss your options. If you are facing an issue where your child has been taken overseas by the other parent, you could be entitled to file legal action under the Hague Convention for international parental child abduction. 

  1. Questions about visitation

Many families have questions about custody and visitation rights. What rights do grandparents have to see their grandkids over the holidays? Unfortunately for the state of Illinois, it does not provide for any visitation to grandparents or other non-parents by default. Unless it’s proven to harm the child, parents are given the discretion to choose who their child has a relationship with or not. 

In the event a grandparent is trying to petition for visitation rights, they must show that a relationship existed with the children before a divorce. In other words, a court may help restore an existing relationship but will not help build a new one.

Final Thoughts

Holiday parenting time issues are extremely common.  They often create strong emotional responses from each parent because not only is it their parenting time, but also it frequently includes extended family members visiting or who have traveled to see the children. In the event of battling with an ex over visitation schedules, or any other family law issue such as divorce or even post-divorce disputes: Remember, if you’re facing any of these issues you aren’t alone. We’ve seen and heard it all and are here to serve and guide you through this season.

Get in touch with our award-winning Masters Law Group Attorneys today for help figuring out a solution to your problem.